FAQs on Elementary Mathematics

Kids and adults alike have had a lot of questions about Math. Here we will try to provide the answers to your most common questions to make Math learning fun, enjoyable and easy for both you and your child/children.

What is Mathematics or Math?

There are a lot of definitions about mathematics. The American Heritage Dictionary defines Mathematics as the study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities, using numbers and symbols. Webster's Dictionary defines mathematics as the science of numbers and their operations, interrelations, combinations, generalizations, and abstractions and of space configurations and their structure, measurement, transformations, and generalizations. Whatever or however they define Mathematics or Math, simply put, it is made up of rules or ideas that have been accepted as truth through tests and converted into formulas that can be simply followed with an expected end result.

Why do we have to learn Mathematics?

You have to learn Mathematics because it is used in many other areas, subjects or sciences such as biology, physics, chemistry, psychology, sociology, economics, business, engineering, computers, communications and almost all other fields and industries. Even all the things that we use at home or in school which involves computers uses mathematics! That alone will force you to learn Mathematics.

How should we study Mathematics?

Roger Bacon, a philosopher and scientist said that, "All science requires Mathematics. The knowledge of mathematical things is almost innate in us... This is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one's brain rejects it; for laymen and people who are utterly illiterate know how to count and reckon."

Thus if as Roger Bacon said that the knowledge of mathematics being innate in all of us then there is no need for us to study Math but although there may be a semblance of truth to this there is still a need to enhance this innate knowledge. You should be actively involved in studying Math inside and outside the classroom or at home. Constant practice is a good way to study Math and using Math games or other fun Math activities are excellent ways of studying and learning Mathematics.

What concepts should preschoolers learn in Math?

Concepts such as counting numbers, number sequences and one-to-one association or matching are the most important concepts that preschoolers should learn in Math. Additional concepts like measurement and weights can also be taught to preschoolers but should not be forced on them.

What concepts should primary students learn in Math?

Primary students learn, aside from enhancing their counting numbers, number sequences and matching skills, they also need to learn the basic concepts of addition and subtraction, telling time, place values and initial skills in conversion to Roman Numerals.

What concepts should elementary students learn in Math?

Elementary students as a whole should be able to learn, aside from the basic addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, working with fractions, algebraic equations, problem solving and basic geometry.

Do I need a tutor to learn Math?

If you feel that even with the available tools both tangible and online you have not yet improved your Math skills then a tutor might be needed. But, a word of advice, you can download as much drills or practice sets from the internet and ask the questions you need to ask to be able to refine your Math skills through online websites like this that a tutor would not be needed in the long run. Practice and active participation is important in order to learn Math the fast, fun and easy way.

Why are we afraid of Mathematics?

One probable reason why you are afraid of Math is because you started learning Math on the wrong foot. Some children in the past were taught that they have to learn Math early because they will have a hard time once they started school. The misconception brought fears to children then. Nowadays, Math activities, tips and tricks are available online and on paper and lots of games and fun activities are already available to help stimulate and promote Math skills such as board games and puzzles.

As a parent, how can I help my kids in learning Math?

The best way to help your kids learn Math is to start at home with basic Math activities like teaching them how to divide or share food among themselves or with their playmates, having them run errands for you so that they will be able to compute change as against the amount you gave and the amount they paid for or have them help you in measuring ingredients for baking a cake or muffin. There are endless ways you can create that will help your kids to learn Math without them even knowing it.

As a teacher, how can I show my students that Math is not something to be feared?

Fear of Math usually start from past failures that your students have encountered and to show your students that Math is not something to be feared you will have to devise ways to explain to them the various concepts as simply as possible and as easy for them to understand. You can start by making them play Math games to take their fears away before you explain to them the principles behind the concepts you would like to discuss to them.

When I was in grade school we did not have Mathematics, we had Arithmetic. What is the difference between Arithmetic and Mathematics?

Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics dealing with the basics of computation such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions and anything to do with positive numbers and calculations while Mathematics includes arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonometry and other branches that all deal with patterns and structures and the application of logic.

Now that you know the basics of math, you can begin making math fun for your child! Find plenty of easy math problems for different year levels by clicking on the blue links!

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Combinatorial Mathematics

Mathematician Ivan Niven subtitled his 1965 book on combinatorial mathematics, Mathematics of Choice, with the phrase, How to Count without Counting. Determining the quantity can always be done by counting - increasing the total by one for each item or instance - but when the number is huge, counting takes a long time. Counting the number of substitution schemes in a monoalphabetic cipher, for example, is a prohibitively time-consuming task (and a boring one).

Combinatorial mathematics, or combinatorics, as it is often called, is a field of mathematics concerned with the arrangement or order of a set of objects. Consider the number of schemes in the monoalphabetic cipher. In the process of selecting a scheme, the cryptographer takes the first letter, say a, and chooses its substitution. In the English alphabet there are 26 letters, so there are 26 possible substitutions (including a). After this choice is made, the cryptographer moves to the second letter. Since one letter has already been selected, there are 25 remaining letters to choose from. After this selection, the next letter is chosen from 24 possibilities, and so forth, with the nth letter having 27 - n possibilities. Even if the cryptographer adopts a scheme such as a shift or some other simple operation, the concept and the result are the same - selections from a number of possibilities.

A basic principle of combinatorics is that the total number of something equals the product of the number of possibilities. For example, if a person has a choice of two different shirts - red (r) and blue (b) - and three different pairs of pants - gray (g), brown (w), and blue (b) - there are 2 x 3 = 6 total wardrobe combinations - r-g, r-w, r-b, b-g, b-w, and b-b. (Some of these combinations would fail to be fashionable!)

For a 26-letter cipher, the cryptographer has 26 possibilities for the first choice, 25 for the second, 24 for third, and so on. The product of these numbers is 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 3 x 2 x 1. The product of all positive integers below n is called n factorial, represented mathematically by an exclamation mark - n!. Factorials are huge for even small n. For example, 26! is approximately 4.0 x 1026. It includes all schemes, including the undesirable one (from a cryptographer's point of view) of choosing a for a, b for b, and so on for each letter of the alphabet. More advanced methods of combinatorics deal with problems of selection, but even without these poor choices, the number of ways of picking a monoalphabetic cipher is enormous.

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What Children Need to Succeed in Mathematics

All children can succeed in mathematics. How do I know this? My empirical experience approaching thirty years tells me this is so. My intuition tells me this is so. You just need to know what to give your children, and more importantly, what not to give them.

Children are natural problem solvers. If you leave them alone, they will figure out the most amazing things. If you nurture them properly and give them the space to grow, they will become natural mathematicians. The trick is to let them believe---at least initially---that learning and education are fun and will lead them to have more fun in life. How simple that sounds! Yet this premise is that simple.

Unfortunately most parents get bogged down in their own problems and do not subscribe to this philosophy. Such parents become frustrated when their child shows a lack of interest in school work and school related tasks. These problems spiral and eventually become overwhelming. Rather than address the problem and correct the negative programming that has been instilled on the child, parents resort to criticism and reprimand.

No child can ever succeed in mathematics with criticism. The one thing that this world has way too much of is that one word---criticism. If you do not believe this statement, try this experiment for one week: refrain from all criticism. Do not criticize your coworkers, your friends, your relatives, yourself. Do not criticize the government, the world, the planet. Watch if your life does not somehow take on a whole new dimension of vibrancy, peace, and enthusiasm.

Pass this enthusiasm onto your child. Tell your son or daughter how creative he or she is. Instill in your children that they are leaders, capable of solving any problem that presents itself. Mathematics is a subject which is self-propelled by high self-esteem. Children who have high self-worth, high self-esteem tend to be better problem solvers. Why this is so is self-evident: a child who believes in himself will approach tasks and problems with a gusto that says he can lick the task. Consequently, this child approaches the problem with the attitude that he will win and the problem will lose. End result: more success in whatever task at hand.

In conclusion, every child can succeed in mathematics. Give your children a never-say-quit attitude. Give them encouragement. Give them love. Do not give them criticism. These three former give, this latter withhold. This is a secret for success in mathematics, in school, and indeed life. Use it.

Joe is a prolific writer of self-help and educational material and is the creator and author of over a dozen books and ebooks which have been read throughout the world. He is a former teacher of high school and college mathematics and has recently returned as a professor of mathematics at a local community college in New Jersey.

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Mortgage Mathematics

Recent news that the Federal Government will be backing away from insurance of high cost loans has created a high level of concern by many who own, sell, and finance high-end homes. The mathematics behind this decision and its implications will be felt throughout the economy.

The first thing to understand is that the Federal Government currently guarantees nine out of every ten home loans that are made. This means that the losses stemming from home value declines has ultimately landed on the government. As these losses continue to mount, it is becoming more and more apparent that the system of government guarantees for private market activity is economically unsustainable.

The implications of this insight are very far reaching, since the government guarantee of mortgages has resulted in much lower interest rates than would have been available if banks were taking all of the default risk themselves. This meant that many people were able to afford much larger houses than they otherwise would have the income pay for at higher rates. In turn, this meant that there was room for home prices to grow because of this influx of new borrowers who could afford to purchase more expansive homes. This effect created a 'bubble' where people bought homes they could not pay for based on the assumption that the prices would continue to escalate indefinitely. When the point was ultimately reached where prices stopped rising and people were unable to pay their mortgage obligations, the bubble collapsed.

This is not a particularly surprising event for those who have studied market bubbles in the past, since all bubbles inevitably crash. The thing that makes this bubble especially unique is that the government is only making token efforts to avoid the creation of another bubble that is similar to the last one. Simple mathematics says that if loans are guaranteed by the government, riskier loans will be made for higher amounts than would have resulted if prices were set by market forces instead of based on administrative fiat.

This has created a bit of a monster for politicians, since most are aware that the current mortgage model is unsustainable but none of them want to be the ones to remove mortgage subsidies for the large middle class voting block. Thus, the first step in this slow regression toward reality is removing loan subsidies for high-end homes. This action can be justified on populist grounds by saying that it will only affect those who are already affluent. And it will most certainly effect people with high-end homes. The lack of government guarantees will almost certainly raise the cost of borrowing through higher interest rates and decrease the amount of home that buyers can afford. This will ultimately result in less buyers bidding for properties and lower prices for people who are selling.

Most people will not feel a terrible degree of sympathy for people who purchased an $800,000 home that is now worth $500,000 since the government lacks the resources to subsidize these people's loan activities. However, there is a critical nugget of insight that this analysis begins to uncover. This insight is that the government lacks the financial resources to subsidize anybody's loan activities. It's just that the people in charge have been too cowardly to admit the mathematical reality. This reality is that the resources required to fulfill promises made by multiple generations of politicians simply do not exist.

Thus, it is very true that the government cannot afford to subsidize wealthy homeowners. But it is equally true that the government cannot afford to subsidize all of the other homeowners as well. The accumulated losses from the real estate bubble are placing a financial burden that is being financed with borrowing and inflationary money expansion. The stark reality is that current levels of government spending are unsustainable. This mathematical fact will eventually come to bear in one manner or another. Thus, while the context of a discussion may be about loan subsidies, tax credits, or whatever proposal is in the cross-hairs on a particular day, the real discussion needs to be about when the government will finally acknowledge mathematical reality.

In short, mortgage mathematics work out such that the cost of borrowing for high-end homes will become more expensive, and then be quickly followed by the cost of other borrowing becoming more expensive. The implicit subsidy to home prices that have been provided by the government has lulled many people into a belief that the economy is on a road to recovery. The truth is that this road stretches on for much farther than we have been led to believe, and still has many more bumps left in it.

What people must come to realize is that these adjustments are inevitable. They will either come sooner and be smaller or come later and be larger. One way or another, many of the promises, guarantees, and other explicit or implicit subsidies granted by the Federal Government will need to be pulled back. When this eventually happens, it will result in an economic shock as entities that have come to expect government aid struggle to survive on their own. However, this shock will result in the systematic allocation of capital by investors toward projects with a higher natural rate of return, instead of being steered based on the availability of subsidies.

The bottom line is that many people will be quite unhappy when the point of final capitulation is reached, and reality is finally accepted by the government. However, the marketplace that emerges after this inevitable period of difficulty will be more robust and resilient. Ultimately, this adjustment will prove to be a necessary step for continued economic growth. If is not a comfortable message to digest, but the sooner that we internalize this reality, the sooner we can reverse our course of chasing after market bubbles and return to a trajectory of long-term growth.

Sincere Thanks,
Douglas J Utberg, MBA

Founder - Business of Life LLC:

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"Business, Life, and Everything In-Between"

How to Excel in Mathematics!

Lots of students consider mathematics to be quite a difficult subject. For many, mathematics studies represent endless effort, time consuming and frustrating overhead.

But, those who are into mathematics, do know that once you are familiar with the details, mathematics provide satisfaction, and even joy. It is true that being good at mathematics is, to some extent, a skill you are born with, but not only.

One of the most important principles in being good at mathematics is to be up to date with the items taught at college. Since the items of mathematics are built one on top of the other, similar to building a wall, brick by brick, it is good practice for any student, no matter what his skills are, to keep up following closely the mathematics subjects being taught. Once a student ignores a single subject, it will be difficult to catch up the new subjects, which are built on top.

Secondly, although college studies include much of mathematics theory, definitions, theorems, and more, knowing the theory is not sufficient at all. Only by tackling and solving lots of problems, can one get real expertise and excel in mathematics. Practice, practice, practice: this is the name of the game. (Actually, mathematics will become a game eventually). These two important principles led me through my studies for my B.Sc. and my M.Sc. degrees. These principles do hold for all areas of mathematics and for all science subjects such as physics and others.

Having said that, still, there must be something else. Something that will really make the difference. That will make a student a great mathematician. Regardless of the born skills, regardless of the dedication, and commitment to mathematics studies, there should be some love, desire, or passion, to gently handle mathematics theorems and rules. If you have such passion, you are on the right way.

Bertrand Russell, the great philosopher and mathematician, did reflect the love to mathematics, as follows: "Mathematics posses not only truth, but also supreme beauty".

The author holds B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering, M.Sc. degree in Interdisciplinary Engineering, and MBA degree.

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Learn Mathematics

Education is one of the most important things here on earth; people are always searching for answers and education play an important role in this endeavor; education will help us discover and explore everything with the use of logic and reason. In this light, education should be prioritized by all individual and should be promoted by all states as well. Of course if the individual acquired certain education and knowledge, wider opportunities are in store for them right? Education is very crucial in the development and growth of every individual therefore the role of the state is to plan and implement programs to help and assist individual earn and have the education they deserve. As you may notice, the state is allotting budget every year for the education system to make improvements and make it better. In every sense of the word, education is defined as the process of the society that seeks to transmit every grain of knowledge to every generation; moreover it comprises acts that are geared toward molding the kid's physical, mental and social functions.

The education system is providing their students with reliable people, equipments and materials that will surely help in the success of this endeavor. Educating a child happens in the classroom but modern teaching strategies consider immersing the child outside to learn and see the real world. In almost every learning experience of a child, there are experienced teachers to guide their way which makes it effective. Aside from teachers, the institution should give importance to learning the fun and dynamic way through some technologies, equipment and other tools available. Most importantly, there are materials that can help you in the process. These materials can be considered in many subject matters that include music, science, children's literature, character education, puzzles, language arts, social studies and even mathematics.

It is important that the above mentioned subjects should be prioritized. For instance, mathematics. Mathematics transcend to more than traditional and simple counting for it encompasses analysis and critical thinking through the use of abstraction; it is a system that is widely used by almost every field such as natural science, engineering, social science, medicine and other crucial studies. There are people that consider math difficult but if you persist, everything will work out just fine. Learning mathematics is easy if you consider some help; there are quite a number of teacher supply. You can also provide your students with preschool furniture for their comfort.With the help of school supplies and furniture, learning math can be fun and interesting. Math will play an important part in our life so it should not be despised.

These materials are not that expensive so you can have many. Indeed education is more effective with the help of these materials. Remember that education is the most important thing in this world and as a parent and teacher, the least thing that you can do for your students is to provide them with a comfortable environment with equipment and materials necessary for the success.

Andre B. Reynolds is a leisure writer who enjoys sharing information about teacher supplies and preschool furniture as well as other interesting topics.

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Field Trips for Children Who Are Home Schooled

Field trips for children who are home schooled can either be very cheap or very elaborate and costly. When deciding what type of trip a home schooled child will take the purpose of the trip should be considered along with the subject that it is for. Excursions are supposed to be experiences for the children that also educate them; they are supposed to be in locations other than the home.

A study trip for a home schooled child can be used to accomplish a variety of different tasks. One task that it could accomplish is that it can be used to provide everyone with a break from the environment of having school at home usually in one room. When children go to public schools or private schools they usually switch classes throughout the day so they are not confined to only one room for the entire day. An abstract example found in a textbook can also be brought to life by going on a field trip. Math lessons can easily be taught in a grocery store, supply store, or anywhere that has interesting things for a child to count that will keep their attention. Another thing that a field trip can accomplish is to bring a simple picture to life. Parents may choose to take their child to the zoo in order to let them see firsthand animals that they may be studying at the time. History can be brought to life sometimes by going on a trip. In some cases when a child sees the place that a historical event to place in it causes them to have a better understanding or even a greater interest in the event. Field trips can also provide hands on how-to expedition. A camping field trip can help teach a child how to read a compass or follow directions by gaining hands on experience.

If the subject being studied is art there are many different field trips that parents can choose to take. One idea is to visit an art museum or even attend a music performance live. Sometimes when you see something or hear something in person you gain a better understanding about it or just appreciate it a little bit more. The subject of physical education can lead to really fun field trips such as going bowling or skating. A study trip for physical education can be anything that will cause the children to be active, which is what they enjoy doing anyway. These field trips are a whole lot better than the alternative; if the child was attending a regular school their physical education would just simply be gym.

In recent years, home schooling has become very popular with many parents who prefer a pro-active approach towards their children's education and development. Home School offers many guides, hints and tips for parents and educators alike on this subject.

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Seven Tips to Help Home Schooled Students Fit Into Public Schools

In many homeschooling families, there comes a time when the parents decide to enroll their children in the public school system. This can happen because the mother does not feel confident enough to teach high school classes, or because the public schools offer team sports or some other course that a home school would have a difficult time providing, or because a loss of income requires the homeschooling mother to return to the workplace. In some cases, there may have been a learning disability that the family could not handle on its own, or possibly a conflict of personalities. Whatever the reason, home schooled students may feel like they will not fit in with public school students. Here are seven tips to ease those worries

1. Listen to popular music on the radio. This goes against the grain of many conservative homeschooling families, but if home schooled students will begin to listen to Top 40 music stations and learn some of the lyrics, they will have something in common with their public school peers.

2. Watch current movies. This is not quite as essential as listening to current musical artists, but it helps students to pick up the attitudes of most American teens. Parents can watch the movies along with their children to help them with sensitive topics such as sex and values that are different from theirs.

3. Join clubs, organizations, and teams which are not affiliated with church or home education. This gives the home schooled student opportunities to meet people who are not "like-minded."

4. Read lots of "secular" books. While reading the Bible and character-building books are excellent, it is extremely important for home schooled students to have been exposed to as many different philosophies and literary themes as possible.

5. Go to the mall. Look at what young people are wearing. Go to the big name teen fashion stores and look at the display windows. Go into the stores and see what the store clerks are wearing. This will tell home schooled students what the current fashions and hairstyles are. Watch fashion, hair, and makeup videos on YouTube to discover how to wear these styles. Stay up to date, because the fashions and colors change every season.

6. Stay smart. Home schooled students are usually smarter than most public schooled students, and quickly rise to the top of the class. However, home schooled students will be in competition for the top places in class rank, and must be prepared to work very hard to get the best rankings and grade point averages. This is critical in landing big scholarship offers from prestigious universities.

7. Embrace your nerdiness. Most home schooled students come from conservative, white collar backgrounds. Automatically, the students will be labeled, but they will also be welcomed and "friended" by the other "nerds" at school.

Donna Pravel is a 25 year home school veteran and the author of Packaging Your Homeschooled Student For College, an e-book on the college admissions process. Download a free book list for high school from Donna Rae At Home.com, a blog site for homeschoolers with a college prep focus.

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The Costs And Procedure Of Home Schooling

Maybe you're one of the many parents who are getting encourage to try home schooling for your children. Maybe you don't know where to start and how much this will cost you. Read on up because we'll help you how to do it.

Homeschooling is the alternative way to educate your children by yourself (the parent, guardian or a formal tutor) as the teacher. It provides you an opportunity to customize your teaching methods, approaches as well the topic for discussion. These factors attracts parents to adopt this process because they will be monitoring their children closely and help foster better relationship with them.

Kids are very receptive to fun activities and creative teaching methods. As kids tend to have a little attention span, the key is to keep them focused and offer them various activities to keep them busy.

When starting out a home school education, it is the best to review policies involving home school education from your city to state level. Communicate with your local board of education and ask for the notification form for homeschooling directives. Make sure that you understand and agree to the regulations set by the city or state. Fit all the regulations with your homeschooling program to prevent any untoward incident from happening. Complete and sign the Assurance of Consent form and include the date it was signed. 15 days are given to complete this form prior to starting your homeschooling programs. Reviewing home-based education law also helps.

Next step is conceptualizing the subjects, teaching methods and activities for your child. The best way to do this is to ask your child what his/her needs, expectations and his/her budding study habits. Make sure that your fit the classes by his/her preferences without having to compromise the quality of discussion. Keep in mind that your child is still a child and it is the best that he/she is still able to enjoy their childhood thus encourage sufficient play time with children of their age.

You don't really need a formally constructed classroom. Find a room in your house that you child is comfortable with. Make sure to make it conducive by setting up visual aids. You can also conduct classes in the kitchen if your subject is about basic food groups or the zoo if your subject is about animals.

There are many curriculum sources available in the internet, sometimes they are even free to. But check and review the document first before downloading because they might be outdated or worse, illegitimate to use. When availing for books and other materials, always browse for various sources as some sources provide discounts while some offers relatively lower price.

While everything sounds good already, the most important things to assess are yet to come - your financial sources. Most families spend over $300 - $ 1,000 to home - schooling. However, prioritizing what you need over what you want will help your reduce your spending. Looking for sales and discounts will help a lot. All the more, it is best to fit your homeschooling to your potential budget.

Looking for the best homeschooling programs? Visit our site and read how to make your own homeschooling curriculum right now!

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Educational Toys in Home Schooling

Homeschooling, also known as home education and home learning, is the education of children at home rather than in traditional schools. Parents sometimes hire tutors, but for the most part, parents play the primary role in teaching. The reasons for homeschooling are diverse, but often include religious or political beliefs, or simply a concern for the quality of learning in conventional schools. No matter the reason, it is imperative that home-schooled children have an enriched environment to nurture crucial developmental skills.

Enriching the Home Environment

Because traditional schooling is rich in environmental stimuli, parents wishing to home school their children strive to compensate for this deficit. Learning approaches that engage the child and keep learning interesting are often highly effective means of environmental enrichment. The play to learn approach, in which children teach themselves important developmental skills through play, is an excellent way to enrich the home environment and accelerate early childhood development and learning.

Educational Toys as Learning Tools

Parents also strive to keep their children motivated to learn, and to instill a strong sense of self-esteem in home schooled children. Children are also easily distracted, so it is imperative to keep them engaged in learning. Educational toys are very effective, as they are stimulating to children, and make learning enjoyable. They also help children to extend their imaginations, and can lead to more effective learning. Home school parents often find it very helpful to include them as a part of their children's curriculum to keep things fresh and to foster a good attitude.

What Home School Parents Should Look For

Not all educational toys are created equal. Some are more effective than others both in engaging children's attention and in building important skill sets. It is often helpful for these toys to present a style of learning that is structured and comprehensive, but that also keeps children motivated and having fun. Often those toys that are modular in design, and that can teach many different skill sets are particularly useful to home school parents.

What Educational Toys Should Teach Children

Educational toys should be enjoyable, but should also be designed with the intent to develop a particular skill set. It is important for the toy to be structured and geared around a target age group because children pass different developmental milestones as they progress through childhood. For children under 5, they should focus on building a foundation skill set that will be supportive of more advanced learning later on. Important skills are visual perception, shape and color recognition, concentration, memorization and basic linguistic skills. As children progress in their development, it is important to enrich for more advanced skill sets. Toys for children over age 5 should focus on more complex and advanced developmental skills. Important skills at this age are critical thinking, abstract thinking, logical thinking, math, geometry, linguistic, pattern recognition, associative and memorization skills.

Home schooling can be a wonderful gift that parents give their children. It allows for parents to nurture their children in the abilities and subject areas that they find to be the most important. Parents are also able to enrich their children's environment in order to strengthen important skill sets, and educational toys represent a powerful and effective means to do so.


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Home School Vs Public School

Our country is slowly sliding down the scale of how our students rank on their SAT scores. As parents and educators we need to analyze and stop this decrease in our standings. Finding the resources to do this is increasingly hard in our economy. School funding is decreasing and parents are frustrated! Teachers must deal with less money, bigger classrooms, and fewer resources. But there are free resources to help us!

Students are continuously frustrated with the rate at which they are given information. This frustration is caused in two ways.

*Not understanding the previous lessons
*Being held back when the lessons are boring

Frustration with the systems that public school has to follow can cause students to become rebellious and seek other ways to release their inner anxiety. Which leads to lower test scores. The first step in stopping this is to check the students SAT scores. Where are they below the National Average and where are they above the National Average?

When a student is ranking high on the SAT scores then you have found a subject that is interesting to them. Encourage this by finding outside resources they can research on their own. A student that is high in reading skills and interested in animals can be guided to volunteer at a Veterinarians office or join 4-H and raise their own animal. Does the local Humane Society need volunteers? How about a Wildlife Rehabilitation group where they rescue the local native animals? Do they excel at a subject where they could mentor other students? Any of these resources will encourage the student to study further and learn by doing!

When a student is having problems with a subject and can not seem to catch up it usually means they have missed some of the basics. One of the best free resources I have found to help them is at Kahn Academy on YouTube. This awesome site is filled with hundreds of lessons that span an ever increasing knowledge base. Elementary subjects through college level lessons are easily accessed and explained in simple language. Many home school parents use this resource as a way to round out their daily lessons.

When a students succeeds at a task that they have previously failed at they will rightly feel a justifiable raising in their attitudes to learning! The subject will become easier as they advance in their skill levels and catch up and sometimes advance beyond their classmates. Their choices for their future will expand as they learn more!

Not every student will turn into a Doctor or Lawyer. We need to find where it is that the student wants to be and encourage them in that quest. It is hard, as a parent, to set aside our own wishes for our students, but if they are to succeed and thrive then we must find what it is that they desire!

In the home school environment the students efforts can be individualized to a greater extent than they can be when enrolled in public school. A curriculum can be designed around the students interests and still encompass all of the learning skills that public schools demand they know. A student who is interested in carpentry will learn math, design, science and reading. A student who is involved with environment will also be learning math, science, reading, writing, and reading. One of the advantages that the home school student has is that they are being trained in independent study which means they are well adapted to that environment if they choose to go on to college. Increasingly home school students are out ranking the public school students on the SAT scores.

Not all students will do well in public school. Not all students will do well in a total home school environment.We do not need to have an all or nothing attitude with this! It is up to us to find the balance for each student that will help them excel in the future!

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Homeschooling High School - Getting the Big Scholarships

Seeking a rigorous curriculum is the first thing that you can do to position your children and your family into a merit based scholarship.

Most colleges want to see four years of English, three to four years of math, three to four years of social studies, three years of a science, two to three years of the same foreign language, two years of P.E., one year of fine art, and electives to add up to 24 credits.

That is well and good if your goal is to simply get in to college. However, we are talking about how to get big scholarships when you go to college. This is WILL NOT be your plan if you are going for the big scholarships. In order to get a big scholarship, you have to exceed that strategy.

Make sure that you meet the highest possible criteria in every single area, knowing that you will exceed some of them. In your student's area of interest, you might exceed it by far. I have helped clients that have four credits of music per year because that's their area of strength. Be certain that you meet the bottom lines in each of the requirements, but also that you have penetrated their strengths to get them the classes they want.

It's not uncommon for students of public, private, or those that are homeschooled to have 35 or more credits. The recommendation of 24 is your bare minimum if you need a big scholarship. Keep in mind that it's a win-win situation; what could possibly go wrong if you do more than enough? They might come out better educated and better prepared for adulthood, but nothing bad is going to happen if they have more than enough credits.

Need help homeschooling high school? Lee Binz, The HomeScholar is an expert in helping homeschool students achieve great college scholarships and maintains a website that discusses homeschool college admissions where you can get answers to all your questions. You can find Lee online at TheHomeScholar.com.

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Tips To Keep a Home Schooling Home Orderly

Keeping an orderly home is not easy for anyone with a job or with children, and even more difficult for the home schooling family. The entire family, with the exception of the father, is home all day. While the mother tries to teach the older children, the preschoolers and toddlers are creating all kinds of messes in all parts of the house. The mother could clean the house all day long, every single day, and never feel like she can keep up with the mess. The house can look like a tornado went through it ten times a day, unless the mother has routines in place to keep most of it from happening.

Keep the House Orderly By Dividing the Day Up Into Small Parts and Creating a Routine For Each Part

The first thing a mother can do top help keep her home and family orderly is to divide the school day up into several small parts. These parts of the day may be called Before School, Morning School Time, Afternoon School Time, Evening, and Before Bed. Each part of the day may be roughly three hours long. In every segment, there may be a regular pattern, such as get dressed, meal chores, or school work, meal, chores. Mentally go through everything that needs to happen during that time period, and write it down.

For instance, if the school day starts at 8:00 A.M., it might start with a 30 minute Bible study while the mother feeds the baby, if there is one. At 8:30, the older children get started on their assignments while the mother turns her attention to the preschooler and toddler. When they are settled, the mother can teach a math concept or give a spelling test. The morning session can go for two hours, until 10 A.M. Then at 10:00, the family can break for a snack and straighten up the house.

Establishing Mini-Routines May Help Homeschooling Mothers Stay On Top of Things

At 11:00, the routine would repeat. The mother would feed the baby again, this time while reading to the children out loud or listening to the children give oral summaries of books they have read, as a suggestion. Once the baby is happy, the mother assigns more seat work for the older children, and attends to the younger children. When they are entertained, she again works with the older students. At 1:00 the family breaks for lunch, then does chores. At 2 PM, the afternoon schedule would start.

If homeschooling mothers can establish small mini-routines, and repeat them throughout the day, they may be able to stay on top of the housework and keep their homes orderly.

Donna Pravel is a 25 year home school veteran. She maintains a blog site for homeschooling women called Donna Rae at Home.com (http://www.donnaraeathome.com). She is the author of Packaging Your Homeschooled Student for College, an e-book detailing the college admissions process for home schools. Ms. Pravel is also a SEO copywriter and the owner of a professional freelance writing business, Donna Rae Online Writing Services (http://www.donnaraeonline.com).

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Beginning Home Schooling

All of the Unites States' fifty states have legalized home schooling, but each state has their own unique guidelines and rules about the entire process of this form of education. Parents who are interested in their children starting homeschooling should first do research about the guidelines and laws that their resident state has. Parents should also do research about the proper steps that need to be followed in order to begin a curriculum.

Some research results have stated that children who are taught at home place in the 89 to 90th percent in the national standardized test. This is sometimes one of the reasons that parents choose to home school their children, they want to give them to have the best education possible. Another reason that some parents have said they choose to home school their children are that they can also include religion as a part of their studies and that this helps to strengthen their family bond. Some parents also feel that when their children are taught at home they are safer than they would be at school; this feeling probably intensifies after tragedies of school shootings are reported on the news. When families need a little more flexibility in their lives or just want to really have control over what their children learn may be attracted to the idea of home schooling. When flexibility is desired it is not only about being flexible in regard to time, but can also be about the methods that are used.

Parents who are considering schooling at home as an option should locate groups that are in their state. These groups give parents access to a lot of useful information and helps the transition go easier. Parents who are new to the world of homeschooling can help themselves from making the most common mistakes when going through this process by talking to others who are more experienced and have a greater amount of knowledge on the subject. Also, by talking to others and doing research a parent will be better equipped to identify important pieces of information that will help give their child or children the best educational experience possible.

There are many different methods of schooling that parents can choose so it is best if parents can make themselves aware of their children's learning mannerisms. When parents conform to their child's habits as far as learning goes the process will probably be easier and more effective.

Before jumping into the choice to home school all the information should be reviewed including any expenses that are associated with this choice, it might even be necessary to create a budget.

In recent years, home schooling has become very popular with many parents who prefer a pro-active approach towards their children's education and development. Home School offers many guides, hints and tips for parents and educators alike on this subject.

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The History of Home Schooling

Throughout the last twenty years more and more families have opted to school their children at home. The subject of schooling kids at home has been a part of controversial discussions and has made a lot of individuals curious about what it would all entail. Children being home schooled is not a new idea. Before 1852 when a law was passed that required school attendance it was common for children to be educated at home.

The qualities that were needed to manage a home where learned by children on a daily basis. Their main learning sources were daily chores like handling the livestock, making clothes, construction and other tasks. During earlier times reading and writing were not as important as knowing how to perform other skills that were needed in order to guarantee survival. In this time children were just taught how to read and write well enough to handle necessary tasks. The chores associated with farming and other jobs came first before school lessons. Today school subjects like reading and math come first before anything else like chores and playing outside. In the 18th and 19th centuries individuals were not concerned with how effective this type of education was. Some of our histories most popular writers and inventors were schooled at home. Some of our histories most well-known individuals that were home schooled include Thomas Edison, inventor Benjamin Franklin, John Wesley, Beatrix Potter, writer Charles Dickens, and Alexander Graham Bell.

Americans began to only use public and private schools as ways to educate their children when the laws regarding compulsory attendance were enforced. After this law was passed the only places that used home schooling were rural areas and the Amish people.

We have established that this type schooling is not a new idea and has been around for a while, but in today's society it is making a comeback and some consider it to be a movement that is pioneering the way for others. The amount of families that have turned to home schooling as a way to educate their children is such a large number that it has drawn a lot of attention to the subject.

The precise time that modern day schooling at home became an issue is not known, but before the year 1970 and all the educational concerns that came along with this time occurred the practice of home schooling a child was an underground concept. The most important event concerning the popularity of families participating in home schooling was when both educational reformers and educational authors started questioning public schools techniques and what the educational quality that they were producing really was.

In recent years, home schooling has become very popular with many parents who prefer a pro-active approach towards their children's education and development. Home School offers many guides, hints and tips for parents and educators alike on this subject.

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Home School High School

Yes for someone who haven't tried home schooling high school, making their own child's home school records and transcripts sounds impossible. They have lots of doubts and uncertainties thinking they will ruin or jeopardize the college life of their child. Well, it's normal to feel that way if we have the reason to do so. But there are times we need to check twice if the way we judge our abilities is right. Maybe we are just lacking self-esteem. Of course we cannot be professional teachers but we can educate our children since we know them better than anyone else does.

First we like to know the reasons why we hesitate to home school our child.

Possible reasons below:

    * Ignorance
    * Intimidated by others who criticize you
    * Complicated
    * Takes a lot of your time
    * We would rather pay someone to do it.
    * We haven't heard of someone who made their own child's records and transcripts
    * We don't know where to find help

Now we try to weigh them up with these solutions:

    * To be an educator of your child requires having the right tools and information. As long as we know how to read, write and willing to learn, we can do it.
    * We must not to listen to misleading and intimidating words around us since they don't know how we feel about the importance of educating our child. Knowing that it is our responsibility as parents to provide quality education to your children will move us to go on.
    * We must avail the necessary tools such as videos, audio, books, e-books and coaching programs that cover all the difficult areas of accomplishing your task.
    * Making records and transcripts is easy, fun and simple. Just to give one example is to learn how to record our student's experience on our own Official Home School Transcript, by subject and by year. This can be delightful since we can do it anywhere, anyplace and at our own convenient time. It need not to be formal.
    * Working to earn money to pay for agency demands a lot of our time than the hours we will spend educating our child. Teaching our child will cost us very minimal amount while agencies will cost thousands of dollars.
    * Many parents have been successful in home schooling high school I'm sure we can too. And college love children who were homeschooled.
    * Today coaching program is available. We are not alone to carry the load. We just need to find out where to avail the assistance that we need.

Reading these solutions may still not convince us that we have the capacity to stand as an educator to our child. We may still have the fear and doubts that we will jeopardize our child's college chance. As I said, it is normal to feel that way. But knowing that thousands of parents had been successful and in homeschooling their child, so we can do it too.

I confidently said the above solutions because I learned the information about the total transcript solution. I discovered how to home school high school and stop worrying about how to make home school records and transcripts. I like to share with you what I learned and how I was helped if you visit my website below:


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Writing Science Fiction

When writing science fiction, the writer has to go further than fiction to the plausibility of science. Science fiction (SF) is theoretically plausible and can be set in a world of the author's creation. The protagonist should struggle but have a fair chance to succeed and overpower the antagonist or antagonists, whether they are visitors from another planet or beings or humans in an alternate or future reality.

To win high accolades for the creative writing, the author should refrain from depicting man as a weakling who can be subjugated or taken as a pet by the aliens. When writing science fiction, the antagonist may be strong, but the story will falter without a worthy protagonist. The futuristic elements of sci-fi are an attractive choice for writing. It makes for great screenplays and novels.

Today writing science fiction is both lucrative and personally satisfying. The readers of sci-fi span age groups young and old and come from diverse parts of the society. Whatever is dealt with in sci-fi should have sound backing in science and technology. Vampires, ghosts, demons and the like may be left out of sci-fi novels because no amount of rationalization is going to give these unearthly creatures an explainable form. They are more aptly suited to fantasy writing. The one thing that makes writing a SF screenplay compelling is the fact that it gives the audience the illusion that what they are viewing is real. Whether the setting is on another planet or the characters are non-human, science and technology can provide a plausible explanation for their existence.

The use of aliens resembling human beings is a commonplace penchant when writing science fiction. The genre is neither religious nor mythical or magical and must not seem absurd, however outlandish the idea may actually initially seem. The integral dependency of sci-fi on believable science sets it apart from other genres. Writing science fiction involves merging fiction and science in the right proportion with clear congruity between the two.

The open-ended universe and the what-if facets of SF draw imaginative crowds.

Anything that is accomplished by human beings is science and what they dream is fiction. In totality, human history was at one time deemed SF. Much of sci-fi writing penned long ago has come to fruition in today's technological world. When writing science fiction, writers have the option to work with or hire a ghostwriter to help create the story and provide feedback.

Contact professional SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS to help write or edit your horror screenplay, novel, or short story.

Just visit our website: http://screenwritersforhire.com/science-fiction-writers/, call / text message John at (716) 579-5984, or EMAIL: Ezine[AT]GhostwritersForHire.Com.

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Definition of Forensic Science

Forensics is a field of science dedicated to the methodical gathering and analysis of evidence to establish facts that can be presented in a legal proceeding. Though crime scenes and laboratories are perhaps, most often associated with forensics, there is also computer or network forensics, forensic accounting, forensic engineering and forensic psychiatry, among other specialized fields that are today an integral part of forensics. In the United States of America, forensics was a fairly obscure topic for the general public until the double-murder trial of Orenthal James Simpson in 1995. In the historic case that gripped the entire nation, weeks of testimony were heard on DNA blood evidence, shoeprint evidence, fiber evidence and other forensics. Since then, a bevy of forensics-based television shows have regularly topped the ratings, making it a household word.

Those who collect forensic evidence must follow strict procedures to protect the evidence from getting contaminated or destroyed, and must preserve the chain of custody. Since science is unbiased and sound, forensics is considered a very critical part of any investigation. While witnesses may often be mistaken, have credibility issues, hold a stake in the outcome, have fading memories, or even pass away, forensics "tells the same story" no matter how many times it is tested, or how many years have passed.

The field of forensics is so vast that it requires specialists or criminalists at every point of investigation, from tire track analysis, to odontology, to the lands and grooves that make every gun barrel unique. From microscopic evidence and transfer evidence such as fibers and hair, to blood splatter and forensic entomology, there are many fields of specialization within forensic science.

Though forensics deals with circumstantial evidence, it is often widely considered as the best and the most compelling evidence that any prosecution or defense lawyer can have in his or her arsenal. Some people suggest that the public's awareness of forensic science might be potentially compromising to law enforcement, producing educated criminals who might be more apt to try and effect a clean crime scene. Experts generally tend to believe that it is nearly impossible to avoid leaving behind trace evidence at a crime scene, even when extraordinary efforts are made to the contrary.

Forensic Science [http://www.e-ForensicScience.com] provides detailed information on Forensic Science, Forensic Science Degrees, Forensic Science Colleges, Forensic Science Schools and more. Forensic Science is affiliated with Biotechnology Careers [http://www.i-Biotechnology.com].

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Writing Science Poetry

Science poetry or scientific poetry is a specialized poetic genre that makes use of science as its subject. Written by scientists and nonscientists, science poets are generally avid readers and appreciators of science and "science matters." Science poetry may be found in anthologies, in collections, in science fiction magazines that sometimes include poetry, in other magazines and journals. Many science fiction magazines, including online magazines, such as Strange Horizons, often publish science fiction poetry, another form of science poetry. Of course science fiction poetry is a somewhat different genre. Online there is the Science Poetry Center for those interested in science poetry, and for those interested in science fiction poetry The Science Fiction Poetry Association. In addition, there's Science Fiction Poetry Handbook and Ultimate Science Fiction Poetry Guide, all found online. Strange Horizons has published the science fiction poetry of Joanne Merriam, Gary Lehmann and Mike Allen.

As for science poetry, science or scientific poets like science fiction poets may also publish collections of poetry in almost any stylistic format. Science or scientific poets, like other poets, must know the "art and craft" of poetry, and science or scientific poetry appears in all the poetic forms: free verse, blank verse, metrical, rhymed, unrhymed, abstract and concrete, ballad, dramatic monologue, narrative, lyrical, etc. All the poetic devices are in use also, from alliteration to apostrophe to pun to irony and understatement, to every poetic diction, figures of speech and rhythm, etc. Even metaphysical scientific poetry is possible. In his anthology, The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, editor Timothy Ferris aptly includes a section entitled "The Poetry of Science." Says Ferris in the introduction to this section, "Science (or the 'natural philosophy' from which science evolved) has long provided poets with raw material, inspiring some to praise scientific ideas and others to react against them."

Such greats as Milton, Blake, Wordsworth, Goethe either praised or "excoriated" science and/or a combination of both. This continued into the twentieth century with such poets as Marianne Moore, T. S. Eliot, Robinson Jeffers, Robert Frost and Robert Hayden (e.g. "Full Moon"--"the brilliant challenger of rocket experts") not to mention many of the lesser known poets, who nevertheless maintain a poetic response to scientific matters. Says Ferris, "This is not to say that scientists should try to emulate poets, or that poets should turn proselytes for science....But they need each other, and the world needs both." Included in his anthology along with the best scientific prose/essays are the poets Walt Whitman ("When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer"), Gerard Manley Hopkins "("I am Like a Slip of Comet..."), Emily Dickinson ("Arcturus"), Robinson Jeffers ("Star-Swirls"), Richard Ryan ("Galaxy"), James Clerk Maxwell ("Molecular Evolution"), John Updike ("Cosmic Gall"), Diane Ackerman ("Space Shuttle") and others.

Certainly those writing scientific poetry like those writing science fiction need not praise all of science, but science nevertheless the subject matter, and there is often a greater relationship between poetry and science than either poets and/or scientists admit. Creativity and romance can be in both, as can the intellectual and the mathematical. Both can be aesthetic and logical. Or both can be nonaesthetic and nonlogical, depending on the type of science and the type of poetry.

Science poetry takes it subject from scientific measurements to scientific symbols to time & space to biology to chemistry to physics to astronomy to earth science/geology to meteorology to environmental science to computer science to engineering/technical science. It may also take its subject from scientists themselves, from Brahmagypta to Einstein, from Galileo to Annie Cannon. It may speak to specific types of scientists in general as Goethe "True Enough: To the Physicist" in the Ferris anthology. (Subsequent poets mentioned are also from this anthology.)

Science poetry may make use of many forms or any form from lyrical to narrative to sonnet to dramatic monologue to free verse to light verse to haiku to villanelle, from poetry for children or adults or both, for the scientist for the nonscientist or both. John Frederick Nims has written for example, "The Observatory Ode." ("The Universe: We'd like to understand.") There are poems that rhyme, poems that don't rhythme. There's "concrete poetry" such as Annie Dillard's "The Windy Planet" in which the poem in in the shape of a planet, from "pole" to "pole," an inventive poem. "Chaos Theory" even becomes the subject of poetry as in Wallace Stevens' "The Connoisseur of Chaos."

And what of your science and/or scientific poem? Think of all the techniques of poetry and all the techniques of science. What point of view should you use? Third person? First person, a dramatic monologue? Does a star speak? Or the universe itself? Does a sound wave speak? Or a micrometer? Can you personify radio astronomy?

What are the main themes, the rhythms? What figures of speech, metaphors, similes, metaphor, can be derived from science. What is your attitude toward science and these scientific matters?

Read. Revise. Think. Proofread. Revise again. Shall you write of evolution, of the atom, of magnetism? Of quanta, of the galaxies, of the speed of sound, of the speed of light? Of Kepler's laws? Shall you write of the history of science? Of scientific news?

Read all the science you can.

Read all the poetry you can.

You are a poet.

You are a scientist.

What have you to say of the astronomer, the comet, of arcturus, of star-sirls, of galaxies, of molecular evolution, of atomic architecture, of "planck time" to allude to other poetic titles.

What does poetry say to science?

What does science say to poetry?

Susan Shaw is a freelance writer and web content writer. Her articles and web content appear online. Susan Shaw is an affiliate of The Book Store/The Science Library, [http://thebookstore.vstoremarket.com/index.htm] (For The Science Library, put "Science" in their search engine.)

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Top 10 Popular Science Books

1. Annals of a Former World, by John McPhee

In patient, lyrical prose, McPhee takes the reader on a geologic journey through the United States. This volume was originally published as 4 books; each is centered on a road trip the author took with a geologist, observing the earth next to Eisenhower's great US highways for clues into its geologic past. Annals has this--no borders, idealistic, On the Road for geologists kind of feel (though a bit more grown-up.) I pick up Annals every once in a while when im in a relaxed mood, when im looking for a good example of literary science writing. Highly recommended as a companion for camping trips, if you can fit it into your pack.

2. Surely You're Joking, Mr, Feynman, by Richard Feynman

A string of excerpts from Feynman's life/career, Surely You're Joking is probably the popular science book I have read through the most times, not because it is short, but because it is at once compelling, understated, and full of indispensible scientific concepts. Richard Feynman has an uncanny ability to make physics easily digestible, his lectures are a testament to that and Surely You're Joking is no exception. Feynman's easy prose makes the reader feel like physics is understandable, as if he has laid out a diagram of the universe on his living room floor--no one is an outsider. It's delightful. Feynman's in my 'top 5 people I would give my right pinky finger to meet' category.

3. A Short History of Nearly Everything, by Bill Bryson

The second heavy volume on the list, A Short History is packed with nearly everything. It takes a look at the science behind a lot of things--beauty, cells, evolution, the universe. Bryson rejects the traditional notion of a 'textbook' with this book, making science seem relevant in our daily lives AND putting this knowledge in the context of the universe--in space and time. Capturing the detailed nooks where science is often concentrated AND eliciting the wonder of the wider perspective is an accomplishment--savor it wherever you can find it. Great in audio book format.

4. The Richness of Life, collection of essays by Stephen Jay Gould

The idiosyncratic Gould has written articles in Natural History and many other science magazines for decades and is one of the most widely read modern science writers. In this collection of articles, Gould's highly intellectual, witty, and pin-accurate prose explains evolutionary theory, racism or baseball with a scientist's eye, but in a way that engages the layman. Gould's dedication to science shows in every piece. Delightful.

5. The Canon, by Natalie Angier

Someone at the New York Times science desk once told me--"Natalie Angier is the queen of metaphor." I have to agree. The Canon is the best example of her witty prose winding the reader through simple scientific questions with difficult answers. In this book, Angier tackles what she has deemed the basic scientific concepts everyone should know: thinking scientifically, probabilities, calibration, physics, evolutionary biology, chemistry, molecular biology, astronomy and geology. Phew. I have to say--this could have been very text-book, but because of her writing style, is masterful. I actually have had many non-scientist friend recommend this to me, which is always a good sign.

6. Universe in a Teacup, by K.C. Cole

Where can you find a book that successfully intertwines the discipline of mathematics, with the concepts of truth and beauty? Universe is just such a book; K.C.'s most popular and in some ways seminal volume. Metaphors she uses pack a punch. Her prose style is somewhat poetic, and in Universe, she proves adept at explain things like chaos or phase transitions are illuminating--not just because you finally understand some science concept that always seem so obscure, but because Cole has also given the you a new way to think about mathematics and the world alongside your new understanding. (Full disclosure--Cole was my academic mentor)

7. The Code Book, by Simon Singh

Packed with information about the history of codes, how to break them, and who figured it all out, this book has a kind-of James Bond appeal. Various scientists and politicians have acted as code-makers and code-breakers from antiquity until modern day, and codes are increasingly important in computer technology and national security. The stories behind the codes are so fascinating i hardly even realized that i was learning about the mathematics of code theory in the process.

8. Enduring Love, by Ian McEwan

Ok, so not everyone would categorize this as a popular science book, but Ill include it anyway. Enduring Love is a fiction book, partially written from the perspective of a former scientist, but more importantly, it is a suspenseful story that lets the author's attitudes towards life bleed through each and every page. Ian McEwan is a well-know rationalist who believes that science is just as much a part of culture as anything else--a position with which I very much empathize. This is a literary tale, sure, but McEwan manages to mention scientific ideas all over the place, integrating science and its ways of thinking into the lives of his complex characters and slowly revealing situations. It's a page-turner.

9. The Double Helix, by James Watson

Though scientist James Watson doesn't have a Stephen Jay Gould command of language and metaphor, The Double Helix still stands as an absolutely riveting account of the series of events that lead up to the discovery of DNA's structure. In the book, scientists Watson, Crick, Maurice Wilkens, and Rosalind Franklin become fascinating characters in a race to figure out what DNA looks like at a molecular level. Each has their own motivations. Each has their own complications. All but Franklin eventually received a Nobel Prize for this work (she died before the award could include her.) A quick, easy read.

10. In the Shadow of Man, by Jane Goodall

A classic book--easy read, no jargon. Goodall's observations of chimpanzee's in the wild first brought to light one of man's most recent ancestors--the chimpanzee. This book chronicles some of Goodall's groundbreaking research through her own observations about chimp behavior. Once immersed in the book, I couldn't help but think--we are all just apes, evolved from or related to one another. Puts things in perspective.

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Biology, Science and Nature Books

Astronomy and Cosmology

Cosmology is the name given to a range of natural sciences, including both physics and astronomy that intends to provide an explanation for how the universe works as an integrated entity. Over the centuries, since the Pythagoreans in Greece during the 6th century BC considered the possibility that Earth was spherical, cosmology has come a long way and has integrated a variety of different fields of science.

Cosmology evolved from the observation of these Greeks who interpreted the natural laws of the heavenly bodies from which, eventually, the Ptolemaic model developed during the second century AD. Centuries later, during the 16th century, the Copernican system further developed the theories surrounding astronomy and cosmology - followed, in the 20th century, by the theories of special relativity and Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Overall, however, the case for cosmology states that the laws of physics work the same everywhere and that there is homogeneity throughout the universe.

'The Holographic Universe', written by Michael Talbot, tells its story in two parts: the first part devotes 55 pages to discussing David Bohm's holographic model of the universe - simplified into everyday language by Talbot. The second part of the book delves into events of the paranormal while, at the same time, attempting to rationalise the holographic model. Talbot introduces the reader to Karl Pribram as well as the philosophies of David Bohm.


Chemistry and biochemistry often go hand-in-hand, existing in parallel with other scientific disciplines such as dietetics [the science of food]. McCance and Widdowson, who produce 'The Composition of Foods' summarises food composition tables and updates much in the way of nutrition as a science. The foreword to the 6th edition has been written by Sir John Krebs while the actual volume itself provides an invaluable source of reference to dieticians and nutritionists the world over.

Meanwhile,'Principles of Biochemistry' by Nelson D has been described as a 'modern approach to biochemistry'. Personally, one of the best biochemistry books I have ever encountered was that written by Patterson - now, sadly, long since out of print. I attribute my successful pass in the biochemistry exams to the presence of Patterson which, by the time I had finished with it, was particularly dog-eared! Nelson D's 'Principles of Biochemistry' really is the next best thing to Patterson and a worthy successor.

Earth Sciences and Geography

Earth sciences are a catch-all term covering a different range of natural sciences from those mentioned above. These relate to the study of the earth and how different parts of it are interlinked to produce that homogenous whole that is the classic feature of the scientific world. If you are interested in the world around you then you may be interested in a lovely book by Gavin Pretor-Pinney. This book 'The Cloud Collector's Handbook' is full of charming pictures, below which you will find a short description of each cloud and space for you to record your own sightings. It certainly gives a new connotation to having your head in the clouds!


If you think about it, there is all the difference in the world between someone who loves school and somebody who loves to learn: it doesn't necessarily follow that, if you love to learn, then you must enjoy school. Education, however, is all about learning for the sheer pleasure of gaining new information. This learning may or may not be associated with school: it can even cover any subject. Evidence of this can be seen in Richard Dawkins' book 'The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution'.

Dawkins goes about educating his readers, explaining to them how fossils can be dated accurately, all about plate tectonics etc, before going into the details of how these may be linked with the global distribution of plants and animals and the effects changes in these physical elements can have on them. Dawkins, whilst making it clear that he is aware [and who could not be?] of the great debate on creation v evolution, doesn't get drawn into the minutiae surrounding this eternal dispute.

Engineering and Technology

One book that I simply have to recommend is a fantastic book written by Jo Marchant. You will find it in our Science and Nature section under the heading of Engineering and Technology. The first thing to say is that this is not some dry and boring technical tome. This book relates the story behind a particularly ancient Greek artefact and what it took to decode its hidden mysteries. The book is called 'Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World's First Computer'. I wish Jo Marchant had found a more intriguing title for her book because this title really doesn't do this book justice.

The book relates the story of the Antikythera Mechanism which has been shown to have amazing capabilities as an astronomical calculator: scientists believe its complexity was at least 1500 years before its time. The Antikythera Mechanism artifact is a good 2,000 years old and was found during a dive in 1901. Scientists have been attempting to unravel its secrets ever since. So, if it's a true-life mystery you are interested, or a book that's a bit different I would strongly recommend this well-written and interesting book of Jo Marchant's.

There are innumerable other sub-genres to be found within our Science and Nature section, covering quite an array of subjects. If you are a fan of the border collie, Barbara Sykes writes a delightful treatise on 'Understanding Border Collies'. This is an excellent book written by somebody who really does understand the intricacies that go to make up this breed of dog and is an absolute 'must have' for all the lovers of border collies out there. Changing from dogs to elephants, I would certainly recommend 'The Elephant Whisperer: Learning about Life, Loyalty and Freedom from a Remarkable Herd of Elephants' - it will really pull on your heartstrings then have you howling with laughter! Check out all the other options within this section - you will probably amaze yourself at the treasure trove of titles hidden within our web pages!

Books on science and nature.

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Science That Is Fun for Kids

Science is an exciting subject for kids. Things have died down in the last couple of years because of videos games, computers and the internet. But there is still a lot of fun experiments and activities kids will love to do. Some of these kits or experiments are cheap, affordable or don't cost any money at all. The best thing science will go is getting your kids away from the computers and out learning something new.


Chemistry is an interesting subject in science. It deals with chemical reactions and the study of changes it undergoes. Chemistry Kits are a great way to break the ice in this subject. They usually consist of safe to use chemicals, breakers, test tubes and even litmus paper. These small kits will also come with instruction of easy experiments your kids can do.


Biology is the study of life and the slow but interesting process it goes through. With some butterfly nets, microscopes and hydroponics lab you can start exploring the wonders of Biology. The most exciting part of Biology is getting a microscope and seeing what different specimens look like up close. There are things you will see that you would never think of. Even planting a plant and watching it change through the weeks can give your kid an idea on what type of work goes into every living thing.


Physics is a study of the motion of objects. There are some really interesting things your kid can do with physics. Radiometers, static electricity and solar energy are some of the starting places in this science category. These kits come ready to go equipment and all come with instructions to demonstrate how all of these functions work.

Laboratory Supplies

Maybe you want to create or explore your own science experiments. You can just jump in and start building your own science project. Grab some batteries, test tubes, beakers anything you can think of and start putting them together. Your kid will have a fun time creating something they want to build. Maybe they want to make a volcano erupt or just create an electrical circuit. Anything they want to do can be done using various science supplies.

These are just some of the science categories that kids are studying in school. A great way for kids to learn is to study and experiment the different areas of science. Getting your kid excited for science now will only help them in the future.

Genesis Scientific is a locally owned Science Equipment Store located in Orem, Utah. It has been supplying Utah Country's Education for over 5 years.

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The Science of Podcasting

Creating a podcast might seem like smoke and mirrors or some form of mystic art. But there is a great deal of science involved. A basic process that anyone can follow to be successful. A repeatable process with a guaranteed result.

So what is the science of podcasting?

Well, actually there are four separate elements that form the science portion of podcasting.

1. The tools you require.

You could if you wish, trick out a complete audio recording studio in which to record your podcast. Or rent one if you prefer that alternative. But it really isn't necessary. All you require is a headset, a computer and audio editing software. The former can be obtained for less than $10. And Audacity is one of the best versions of the latter -- and it's free. As for the computer literally anything will do from a basic netbook to an ultra powerful desktop gaming system.

2. The process you need to follow.

One of the cornerstones of science is a repeatable process. Producing a quality podcast also requires a repeatable process. Generally there is a four step process involved in producing podcasts. This is just a subset of the standard learning content process. Since podcasts are marketing products, we will use the same target audience, solution and system as every other product in the product line. As a result the process begins with the planning of the podcasts (part of the product line planning).

3. How to record a podcast.

While the performance of the podcast content is part of the art of podcasting, the actual recording is part of the science. You could record it using high quality microphones and a mixing board. But really all you require is the headset and software mentioned above. Making the actual recording is simply a matter of putting on the headset, setting the recording levels and making the recording. However, you should record the level settings and how you adjusted your microphone. Why? Because by doing so you can ensure that the recording level of your podcast is uniform for all your podcasts.

4. How to edit a podcast.

The editing process consists of using Audacity or a similar audio editing tool. Errors should be removed -- within reason -- and the entire podcast brought within the required time length. Once the errors and dead air have been removed, you can begin to correct any sound quality issues. The frequency can be adjusted for example to provide depth to the individual's voice. Once the podcast content is acceptable, you need to add the packaging. This is the added musical content during the opening and closing credits and between columns.

Do you want to learn how to create information products (learning content)? Check out my new free eBook "7 Myths and Seven Tricks in Nine Steps": http://www.learningcreators.com/myths.htm

Do you want to read more free information like this? Go to my blog: http://www.learningcreators.com/blog/

Glen Ford is an accomplished consultant, trainer and writer. He has far too many years experience as a trainer and facilitator to willingly admit.

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Fun Exploding Science Experiments

One of the best ways to attract your child's attention and get them interested in science is to demonstrate some fun exploding science experiments! Showing them a great explosion and then explaining to them why it happened, and how it can be recreated will create a curiosity for learning, and will show your child that science experiments can be a lot of fun! Do any of these fun exploding science experiments in your home, and let the learning begin!

Pseudo Explosion

To get started with your fun exploding science experiments, try one that doesn't really explode, as the sound may scare your child at first. Putting dry ice into some warm water produces gas and water vapor so rapidly that it is visible. It gives an eerie smoky effect. You can usually buy dry ice at an ice cream store. Teach your child not to hold the dry ice, as it is usually cold enough to hurt them. Demonstrate how this kind of ice is different from regular ice because it doesn't melt into a liquid, it just evaporates into the air. That is because it isn't made out of water, but of carbon dioxide.

Pretend to concoct secret potions with your dry ice, and watch it bubble over water. This experiment is best to teach right before Halloween so you and your child can come up with color ideas for water. Place differently colored jars of water around your lawn or front porch and drop in some dry ice. This will create a spooky effect around your home, perfect for the scary holiday!

Soda Fountain

One of the most famous fun exploding science experiments is the soda fountain. Explain to your child how soda is filled with carbon dioxide gas that is connected to the liquid of the soda. When you drop in a whole roll of Mentos candy into the soda, the tiny holes in the candy reacts with the carbon dioxide in the soda, forcing the gas up and out of the bottle. Place a liter of soda in the middle of your garden and have your kids get ready to dance around the fountain. Drop in the roll of Mentos candies and watch it work! While it isn't a huge explosion, it's a lot of fun!

Bag Burst

This fun exploding science experiment uses the same principles used by the classic erupting volcano science fair project. Take a two tablespoons of baking soda and wrap it up in some tissue paper. Then grab a zip lock bag and put in half a cup of warm water followed by a cup of vinegar. Zip the bag up partially then put it in the center of your garden, put in the tissue with baking soda and zip the bag up the rest of the way. Stand back, because the bag will expand till it explodes!

The bag explodes because once the baking soda an vinegar interact, they produce carbon dioxide gas which fills the bag until the only way out is for it to explode! As we can see, carbon dioxide was used in all these fun exploding science experiments. To make this a true day of learning, try to figure out what it is about carbon dioxide that allows it to do any of the three experiments just discussed!

If your child sees science as boring and difficult, spark their interest and imagination by making science fun! There are tons of easy experiments you can do at home to help your child understand and love the amazing world of science! Check it out now at Amazing Science Discovery!

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Best Science Fiction Novels in Modern Times

Science fiction is a genre of movie making and novels that is surely alive and well. Few people walking around have not watched an episode of Star Trek, read or watched Harry Potter, or headed to the movie theater to watch Terminator or one of The Matrix movies. While the movies are great, nothing beats settling back with a book and letting the mind create the visuals we imagine instead of someone else's vision.

Harry Potter - Yes, the movies are fantastic, but the books are where the true pleasures lie with this series. There are plenty of sci-fi series novels, but few of them are as well constructed as the Harry Potter books. Rowling has often stated she knew exactly where this series was going from the moment she took pen to paper, and anyone who has read the entire series would be hard pressed to argue that very fact.

Oryx and Crake - A great tale about how the corporate world's greed could lead to an apocalypse. Anyone who has ever wondered what goes on those laboratories will enjoy this book. It taps into modern times and tells a tale that could be all too real. Few readers have put this book down without asking themselves quite a few questions about where our world is headed.

Rainbows End - Anyone having wondered what the future holds in terms of medical marvels will love this book. Imagine being regarded as a brilliant mind only to suffer from a debilitating disease. Now imagine the world finds a cure but that once brilliant mind is now regarded as average. Instead of having everyone marvel at your intelligence, you merely struggle to keep up with everyone else. The book makes a lot of assumptions about where today's technology is going but definitely evokes plenty of questions by the time the last page is turned.

Time Traveler's Wife - An incredible concept that was taken to incredible levels in the book. The movie was very good, the novel was great. Imagine having a condition that literally has you jumping from decade to decade, year to year, or century to century at any given time. On the other side is the person who has given you their heart, never knowing when you will disappear or how and if you will come back to them. If you enjoyed the movie, the book will take you to places only touched upon by the film. A truly great read.

As kids, many of our nightstands had the latest science fiction novel sitting on it dog-eared and ready for us to enjoy every night. While there are just a few of our favorite science fiction novels, you can see a complete selection at DigitalScienceFiction.com.

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